Section I. Quantitative relationships


Each of the items numbered 1 through 25 consist of a pair labeled (1) and (2). Use the following key to indicate whether (1) is greater than, less than, or approximately equal to (2).

Check:
A. if (1) is greater than (2)
B. if (2) is greater than (1)
C. if (1) and (2) are approximately equal.

For example:

(1)The number of people living in Chicago.
(2)The number of people living in Carbondale.

In this example, (1) is greater than (2) so you should check circle A.
(Go ahead, try it! Then press the "GO!" button to begin the exam.)
























Question #1.



(1)The role of gastric acidity in helping to prevent infection by Salmonella.
(2)The role of gastric acidity in helping to prevent infection by Shigella.































Question #2.



(1)The role of non-human animals in the transmission of Brucella to humans.
(2)The role of non-human animals in the transmission of Bordetella to humans.































Question #3.



(1)The role of Staphylococcus aureus in the condition known as scalded skin syndrome.
(2)The role of Staphylococcus aureus in the condition known as toxic shock syndrome.































Question #4.



(1)The occurrence of a bacteremia during the course of Salmonella-induced enteric fever.
(2)The occurrence of a bacteremia during the course of Salmonella-induced gastroenteritis.































Question #5.



(1)The number of different bacterial genera that might be sensitive to erythromycin.
(2)The number of different bacterial genera that might be sensitive to tetracycline.































Question #6.



(1)The appearance of a bloody stool following infection by Shigella.
(2)The appearance of a bloody stool following infection by Vibrio.































Question #7.



(1)The total number of different exotoxins produced by different strains of C. tetani.
(2)The total number of different exotoxins produced by different strains of C. botulinum.































Question #8.



(1)The ability of enteroinvasive E. coli to produce a “Shigella-like” diarrhea.
(2)The ability of enteropathogenic E. coli to produce a “Shigella-like” diarrhea.































Question #9.



(1)The role of normal flora in the prevention of pseudomembranous colitis.
(2)The role of normal flora in the prevention of gas gangrene.































Question #10.



(1)The percentage of normal flora on the skin that belong to the genus Bacteroides.
(2)The percentage of normal flora on the skin that belong to the genus Staphylococcus.































Question #11.



(1)The probability of forming granulomas as a consequence of infection by Brucella.
(2)The probability of forming granulomas as a consequence of infection by Bordetella.































Question #12.



(1)The number of different H-antigens that have been identified in the genus Salmonella.
(2)The number of different H-antigens that have been identified in the genus Shigella.































Question #13.



(1)The likelihood of finding lipoteichoic acids in the cell wall of a Gram-positive bacterium.
(2)The likelihood of finding lipoteichoic acids in the cell wall of a Gram-negative bacterium.































Question #14.



(1)The percentage of 3-year old children that carry S. pneumoniae in their upper respiratory tract.
(2)The percentage of adults that carry S. pneumoniae in their upper respiratory tract.































Question #15.



(1)The importance of M proteins to the virulence of Group A streptococci.
(2)The importance of Protein A to the virulence of Group A streptococci.































Question #16.



(1)The ability of the Pseudomonas Toxin A to block eukaryotic protein synthesis through ADP-ribosylation of EF-2.
(2)The ability of pertussigen toxin to block eukaryotic protein synthesis through ADP-ribosylation of EF-2.































Question #17.



(1)The ability to differentiate S. aureus from S. epidermidis using a catalase test.
(2)The ability to differentiate S. aureus from S. epidermidis using a coagulase test.































Question #18.



(1)Colonization of the human small intestine by enterotoxigenic strains of E. coli.
(2)Colonization of the human small intestine by enterohemorrhagic strains of E. coli.































Question #19.



(1)Linkage of the ala-glu-lys-ala tetrapeptide to N-acetylmuramic acid in the cross-linked structure of peptidoglycan.
(2)Linkage of the ala-glu-lys-ala tetrapeptide to N-acetylglucosamine in the cross-linked structure of peptidoglycan.































Question #20.



(1)The mortality associated with the bubonic form of the plague.
(2)The mortality associated with the pneumonic form of the plague.































Question #21.



(1)The ability of streptomycin to act as a bacteriocidal antibiotic.
(2)The ability of chloramphenicol to act as a bacteriocidal antibiotic.































Question #22.



(1)The percentage of nosocomially-acquired infections that are due to Escherichia.
(2)The percentage of community-acquired urinary tract infections that are due to Escherichia.































Question #23.



(1)The ability of choleragen to stimulate the activity of host cell adenylate cyclase.
(2)The ability of the E. coli LT toxin to stimulate the activity of host cell adenylate cyclase.































Question #24.



(1)The ability of Escherichia to ferment lactose.
(2)The ability of Pseudomonas to ferment lactose.































Question #25.



(1)The average number of yearly worldwide cases of cutaneous anthrax.
(2)The average number of yearly worldwide cases of inhalation anthrax.